Definition : A pronoun is used in place of a noun or nouns. Common pronouns include he, her, him, I, it, me, she, them, they, us, and we.

Here are some examples:

INSTEAD OF: Budi is a good athlete.he is a good athlete.

(The pronoun he replaces Budi.)

INSTEAD OF: The beans and tomatoes are fresh-picked.They are fresh-picked.

(The pronoun they replaces the beans and tomatoes.)

Often a pronoun takes the place of a particular noun. This noun is known as the antecedent. A pronoun “refers to,” or directs your thoughts toward, its antecedent. Let’s call Budi and ask him to join the team.

(Him  is a pronoun; Budi is its antecedent).

To find a pronoun’s antecedent, ask yourself what that pronoun refers to. What does him refer to in the sentence above—that is, who is the him? The him in the sentence is Budi; therefore, Budi is the antecedent.

  • Subjective Pronouns

A subjective pronoun acts as the subject of a sentence—it, performs the action of the verb. The subjective pronouns are he, I, it, she, they, we, and you.

He spends ages looking out the window. After lunch, she and I went to the planetarium.

  • Objective Pronouns

An objective pronoun acts as the object of a sentence—it, receives the action of the verb. The objective pronouns are her, him, it, me, them, us, and you.

Cousin Eldred gave me a trombone.Take a picture of him, not us!

  • Possessive Pronouns

A possessive pronoun tells you who owns something. The possessive pronouns are hers, his, its, mine, ours, theirs, and yours.

The red basket is mine.Yours is on the coffee table

  • Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points out a noun. The demonstrative pronouns are that, these, this, and those.

That is a good idea. These are hilarious cartoons.

A demonstrative pronoun may look like a demonstrative adjective, but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun, taking the place of a noun

  • Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun is used in a question. It helps to ask about something. The interrogative pronouns are what, which, who, whom, and compound words ending in “ever,” such as whatever, whichever, whoever, and whomever.

What on earth is that? Who ate the last Fig Newton?

An interrogative pronoun may look like an interrogative adjective, but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun, taking the place of a noun.

  • Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun refers to an indefinite, or general, person or thing. Indefinite pronouns include all, any, both, each, everyone, few, many, neither, none, nothing, several, some, and somebody.

Something smells good. Many like salsa with their chips.

An indefinite pronoun may look like an indefinite adjective, but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun, taking the place of a noun

  • Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun introduces a clause, or part of a sentence, that describes a noun. The relative pronouns are that, which, who,and whom.

You should bring the book that you love most.

That introduces “you love most,” which describes the book.

Hector is a photographer who does great work.

Who introduces “does great work,” which describes Hector.

  • Reflexive Pronouns

A reflexive pronoun refers back to the subject of a sentence. The reflexive pronouns are herself, himself, itself, myself, ourselves, themselves, and yourselves. Each of these words can also act as an intensive pronoun (see below).

I learned a lot about myself at summer camp. (Myself refers back to I.)

They should divide the berries among themselves. (Themselves refers back to they.)

  • Intensive Pronouns

An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent (the noun that comes before it). The intensive pronouns are herself, himself, itself, myself, ourselves, themselves, and yourselves. Each of these words can also act as a reflective pronoun (see above).

myself don’t like eggs. The queen herself visited our class.

Reference :

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Subject, Verb , Complement, Modifier


Definition: The subject of a sentence is the noun, pronoun or noun phrase that precedes and governs the main verb. The subject is the part of the sentence that performs an action or which is associated with the action.

For example:

* He is a really nice guy.
* “He” is the subject of the sentence, controlling the verb and the complement.
* My dog attacked the burglar.
* “My dog” is the subject, controlling the verb and the rest of the sentence.
* David plays the piano
* The subject “David” performs the action of “playing the piano”.
* The police interviewed all the witnesses.
* The subject the police performs the action of interviewing all the witnesses.


Definition: Verbs are a class of words used to show the performance of an action (do, throw, run), existence (be), possession (have), or state (know, love) of a subject. To put it simply a verb shows what something or someone does.

For example:

* Paul rides a bicycle.
* Here, the verb rides certainly denotes an action which Paul performs – the action of riding a bicycle.
* We buy some books to learn English verbs.
* In this example, the action word is “to buy”. It tells us that the subject “we”, that is the person who performs the action of the verb is “buying some books”.

The verb tense shows the time of the action or state. Aspect shows whether the action or state is completed or not. Voice is used to show relationships between the action and the people affected by it. Mood shows the attitude of the speaker about the verb, whether it is a declaration or an order. Verbs can be affected by person and number to show agreement with the subject.


a complement is the part of a Sentence that comes after the Verb and is needed to make the sentence complete. The following are the most important types of complement used in English:


Eg: He’s a surveyor. (The Subject is completed by the complement to the verb. This is a Copula Verb.


Eg: She sent him the fax. (The sentence is completed by telling us what she sent to him.)


Eg: They’ll be happy. (The sentence is completed by the Adjective; this could be extended further, they’ll be happy to see us, etc..)


Eg: They talked about what needed doing. (The sentence is completed by the Phrase linked to the verb by the Preposition.)


tells the time, place or manner of the action. Very often it’s a prepositional phrase. Prepotional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun.
Note : A modifier of time usually comes last if more than one modifier is present.

Example of prepositional phrases :
In the morning, at university, on the table.
A modifier can also be an adverb or an adverbial phrase :
Last night, hurriedly, next year, outdoors, yesterday
Example : John bought a book at the bookstore
(modifier place)
Jill was swimming in the pool yesterday
(modifier of place)(modifier of time)

Note :
The modifier normally follows the complement, but not always. However, the modifier, especially when it’s a prepositional phrase, usually can’t separate the verb and the complement.
Example : She drove the car on the street
(verb) (complement)

Reference :

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Experience while making practical projects Basic Electronics

     I’ll tell you a little about the experience while making tool Basic Electronics lab project. In Basic Electronics lab I got a project with the title “Door Alarm with Infra Red”. This is the first project that I made with a group of friends.

     The first thing we do is create a series Schematic Door Alarm with Infra Red, and placed on board the PCB (Printed Circuit Board). After installing the necessary components such as IC (Integrated Circuit), Diodes, Resistors, LED (Light Emiting Diode), Buzzer, etc.. Since this project was first created, then there are many mistakes that occur such as:

– One lane placement on the circuit schematic.

– At the time of Eching on the PCB there are some lines missing.

– Many of the components due to excess tension and sort when soldering components is too long.

      At the time of making the tool With Infrared Door Alarm is finished, it turns the device output is still less than perfect due to a series Door Alarm With Infrared obtained from Lab. Basic Electronics is still not perfect. So all that got the project through its output is still less than perfect.

     And then the paper-making project. Because the manufacture of paper became my responsibility, so I asked the AP (Project Assistant) to ask the provisions of paper-making project. But after the paper was finished, it was still one of the papers (after already stated correctly by the AP), then occurring several times revised papers.

      But ultimately the manufacture of tools and paper projects are completed on time, and that is the impression when creating projects Basic Electronics lab.

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Windows error because the shell is modified

     A few days ago I want to change the look of Windows Themes on my laptop, because my friend who managed to do that. So I asked for directions on how to change the Windows Theme to my laptop. Then I started to install the software and follow the instructions that have been given. At first only a few parts changed, such as: display windows after booting, display the start menu, and display on the desktop. Because the results are less than perfect, I tried to copy the existing Shell Themes in the application given by a friend, then I paste in my windows folder, and the result after restarting my laptop, my desktop display to black and all, a lot of programs that are error . And the only way that could be done was to re-install windows.

    Actually what is the sense of Shell? So it is a shell program (command interpreter) that bridges the user’s operating system in kernel (the core of the operating system), usually provides a shell prompt as the user interface, where the user can type the desired commands in the form of an internal command shell ( internal command), or command execution program file (an external command), but it lets the user compose a set of commands on one or more files to be executed as a program.

     So the message from me is when friends want to change the appearance of the windows (especially a beginner like me), it is advisable to ask for help to someone who is more experienced. And when it got a clue, do not try to experiment yourself like me. Hopefully some of my information is useful to all my friends.

Ref :

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Tips For Avoided Facebook From Hackers

     At first I was writing this paper is due in september and my Facebook hacked by someone. But strangely at that time I never went to another place that is connected to the internet, because I prefer to use the internet at home. So the chances of getting a keylogger almost nothing. But I never tell my Facebook account to someone I know, and even then was so long ago. And to this day I have many times tried to access my Facebook account a long time, but it was too late because all personal data has been changed by the hacker. So the conclusion is I will give you some tips on how to order FB (Facebook) to avoid the act of hackers, so events that I experienced did not happen to you.

1) Do not give your personal account information to someone new you know.

2) Be careful when playing in a place that is connected to the internet, try using a password that has been combined with letters, numbers, and characters. To be safe if you have a flash disc, just typing your password in a notepad, then paste the copied later lived alone.

3) Do not easily believe the new people who you know in a way not to allow others to be your friend.

4) Finally, pray that you are not hacked Facebook.

Hopefully some of my tips will be useful for all my friends.

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Change the look of Windows 7 Home Basic / Home Starter using “Aero Unlocker”

     Basically windows 7 home basic / windows 7 home starter does not have a windows application which is owned by Aero windows 7 home premium , windows 7 professional and windows 7 ultimate .

       Initially I was taught by a friend about how to change the look of windows 7 home basic / windows 7 home starter like the look of windows 7 home premium and above . Because my laptop using windows 7 home basic , so I try to use the tips from my friends and after I tried and it worked . And here’s how to use it :

  1. First download unlocker aero, click here
  2. Once downloaded open the folder unlocker aero
  3. right click on the file ” Personalization Panel v1.2.1 Silent ” and select ” Run as administrator “
  4. right click on the file ” aeropatch1.4 ” and select ” Run as administrator “
  5. PC will restart automatically. ( if the PC does not restart automatically , right-click on the desktop and select ” Personalize ” , if it is still empty select “get the latest windows update ” << if not wrong because I forgot lol :).. There are basically writing over the middle and then clicked on the content up to you , then restart the PC manually )
  6. completed

And below is the view windows 7 home basic aero me after using the unlocker :


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Tips on using the “Aegisub” to edit the subtitle timings that do not fit

This paper is the addition of a previous post titled “Tips on using mkvmerge GUI” if you want to see my previous post click here and click here if you want to download Aegisub. Basically Aegisub is a software that can be used for a variety of functions, including:

1. Creating a new subtitle file
2. Edit existing subtitle file
3. Setting the timing subtitle
4. Adjust the position of the text to be used in the subtitle
5. Have various effects such as Font Style, Font Color, Effects Karaoke, etc.

How to use it:

  • Open Aegisub applications that have been installed previously
  • Then click File – Open Subtitles (select the subtitle you want to edit)aegis1
  • Then click Timing – Shift Timesaegis2
  • On the menu Shift Times has several functions:aegis3

1. Shift by

– Time: Used to determine the amount of time that will be added or subtracted.

– Forward: Used to create advanced time / add time

– Backward: Used to create a countdown / reduce time

2. Affect

– All rows: all rows in Aegisub

– Selected rows: rows in set yourself

– Selection onward: the line is determined onwards

3. Times

– Start and End times: the beginning and the end will change

– Start times only: at the beginning of time have changed

– End times only: time at the end of the course has changed

      So using the “Shift Times” on Aegisub we can edit subtitle that does not fit into accordance with what we want. And when you’re done editing the subtitle do not forget to save first.

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