NASA Mars spacecraft to search for clues about why the Red Planet lost much of its atmosphere

The-planet-Mars-via-AFP

NASA is preparing to launch its latest orbiter to Mars Monday on the hunt for clues about why the Red Planet lost much of its atmosphere.

The launch of Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN), could happen as early as 1:28 pm (1828 GMT) from Cape Canaveral, Florida, during a two-hour launch window.

The weather forecast was 60 percent favorable for takeoff of the unmanned orbiter, NASA weather officials said Sunday.

Researchers have described the mission as a search for a missing piece to the puzzle of what happened on Mars, perhaps billions of years ago, to transform Earth’s neighbor from a water-bearing planet that might have been favorable for life to a dry, barren desert with hardly any atmosphere.

“MAVEN is the first spacecraft devoted to exploring and understanding the Martian upper atmosphere,” the US space agency said.

“The spacecraft will investigate how the loss of Mars’ atmosphere to space determined the history of water on the surface.”

NASA has sent a series of rovers to explore the surface of the Red Planet, including its latest, Curiosity, which arrived last year.

The deep space orbiter launched earlier this month by India seeks to find traces of methane from Mars and may arrive two days later than the US spacecraft, if NASA’s launch goes ahead as planned on Monday.

The science goals of the two do not overlap much. The Indian probe will be searching for methane which could prove the existence of some ancient life form, while the US probe seeks answers about the planet’s climate change.

The entire MAVEN mission cost $671 million.

The journey to Mars will take 10 months in total, with arrival set for September 2014 and the science mission of the solar-wing paneled orbiter set to begin in November 2014.

Much of its year-long mission will be spent circling the planet at a distance of 6,000 kilometers (3,800 miles) above the surface, but it will execute five deep dips to a height of just 125 kilometers (78 miles) to get readings of the atmosphere at various levels.

The eight-foot (2.5 meter) cube-shaped spacecraft weighs 5,410 pounds (2,453 kilograms) and will launch aboard an Atlas V 401 rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

Scientists hope its findings will help pave the way for a future visit by humans to the Red Planet, perhaps as early as the 2030, NASA has said.

Source

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Scientist proposes ‘SETI Lottery Bond’ to fund search for extraterrestrial life

alien-shutterstock

In an article for the Journal of British Interplanetary Studies, Jacob Haqq-Misra proposes to fund the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) project by issuing a bond that pays out when proof of intelligent life on other planets is discovered.

The proposed bond is a “lottery bond,” meaning that it will return a low and fixed rate of interest until it matures — and it only reaches maturity when the SETI project discovers definitive proof of the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life.

Once the bond matures, a few “lucky” bondholders will receive a handsome payout, while other investors will receive little to nothing, much like a conventional lottery ticket.

According to Haqq-Misra’s paper, “[t]he total capital raised this way will provide a fund to be managed by a financial institution, with annual payments from this fund to support SETI research, pay investor interest, and contribute to the lottery fund. Such a plan could generate several to tens of millions of dollars for SETI research each year, which would help to revitalize and expand facilities such as the Allen Telescope Array.”

Though Business Insider believes such bonds will be a hard sell because they assume the Drake Equation to be correct, “they’re a fun way to help underfunded space research [and] if we do end up finding an alien civilization, you or your descendants will be able to cash out big time.”

[“Alien Humanoid” on Shutterstock]

Source

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Archaeologists discover five 4,000 year-old heads of royal statues from the pharaonic era

Pyramids-of-Egypt-via-AFP-615x345

A team of Egyptian and French archaeologists have found five heads of royal statues from the pharaonic era, officials from the antiquities ministry said on Saturday.

“The heads, which had crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt and were made from limestone, were discovered” south of Luxor, Antiquities Minister Mohammed Ibrahim said in a statement.

The head of the department of pharaonic antiquities, Mohammed Abdel Maqsud, said the heads measured 50 centimetres (20 inches) across and are estimated to be around 4,000 years old.

He said experts were studying them to determine if they belonged to decapitated statues found in the same location several years ago.

Source

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Hundreds of rare primates seized from animal smugglers in Indonesia

Adorable-slow-loris-Shutterstock

Hundreds of slow lorises have been seized on Indonesia’s Java island as animal smugglers were about to send the protected primates to markets to be sold as pets, officials said on Friday.

Government officials last week discovered 238 of the nocturnal animals, one of the few mammals that has a toxic bite, packed into small plastic crates at the port of Merak in the north-west of Java.

They had been smuggled from Sumatra, a vast, jungle-covered, biodiverse island that is home to many rare animals, said protection group the International Animal Rescue Foundation Indonesia.

The group took them to their rescue centre but on the way “six of them died… because they were squeezed tight in the crates and lacked food and water,” the foundation’s Aris Hidayat told AFP.

The animals were about to be sent to markets in the capital Jakarta and surrounding cities when they were rescued, Hidayat said.

Vets at the rescue centre believe the animals had only been captured recently and said hopefully they could be released back into the wild soon, he said.

The Natural Resources Conservation Agency, the government body that discovered the lorises, said a man had been named a suspect in the case and would face trial soon.

Under Indonesian law, someone caught selling protected animals faces a maximum of five years in jail and a 100 million rupiah ($8,700) fine.

The slow loris, which has big eyes, grey fur and is closely related to the lemur, is found across Southeast Asia.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature categorises the lorises on Sumatra as vulnerable.

Source

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Weird Fish

       There are many animals – unique and mysterious animal that has not been found , since there are many places – places untouched by humans . Some time ago , we have witnessed the creatures – sea creatures with strange shapes and unique , well in this post , I will invite my readers to know the creatures – weird creatures of the river . Could sightings – sightings of the river is actually a cryptid creature sightings of this creature ?

        Like the ocean , the river is also home to thousands of species of freshwater animals . Not only fish , in the river was found to form different types of creatures and strange enough we’ve never seen before.

  1. Goliath Tigerfish

Ikan Aneh 1

 

Heard the name alone , we already know if this creature is not being careless . With a length of 1.5 meters and sharp teeth , of course a lot of people are afraid to look spooky fish . Goliath Tigerfish is the biggest variant in the family Tigerfish , and is a great predator . Fish is known for its power and speed.

2. Vampire Piranha

Ikan Aneh 2

Vampire Piranha is a close relative of the famous piranha fish of the Amazon river . This fish is called piranha because vampire fangs that can reach 6 inches . Piranha fish which is rarely known to live in the Orinoco River , Venezuela .

3. African Lungfish

Ikan Aneh 3

River creatures were quite strange in my opinion . For people who have never seen it, would have thought this creature as a monster because of the creepy . However , despite the terrible shape , these animals are completely harmless . These fish adapt to their environment less oxygen , thus making this fish rarely seen by humans .

4. Mekong Giant Catfish

Ikan Aneh 4

Certainly most readers already know this one fish . Fish that is almost similar to the whale shark is the largest freshwater fish ever found and originated in China . Its size alone is closer to whales than freshwater fish in general .

Source

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Example of Questions

5W1H Question :

 

  • Who

Who are you?

Who’s living in that house?

Who is going to school by bus?

Who went to school by bus yesterday?

Who’s ate my pudding last night?

 

  • What

What are you talking about?

What kind of job are you doing right now?

What’s your favourite song?

What is your dream?

What kind of person are you?

 

  • Where

Where do you college?

Where is your girlfriend live?

Where do you live?

Where is my pencil?

Where are you right now?

 

  • Why

Why budi ate my pudding last night?

Why this happen to me?

Why i must helping you?

Why you do this to me?

Why do you love me?

 

  • When

When is the sunrise?

When did he leave?

When the exam begin?

When do you married?

When your uncle died?

 

  • How

How did you get there?

How long did you lived in that house?

How old are you?

How are you?

How did you get that job?

 

  • Yes – No Question

Do you watch anime very much?

Do you like anime?

May I borrow your Laptop?

Do you like sweet things?

Do you have a girlfriend?

 

  • Tag question

with auxiliaries

You’ve got a car, haven’t you?

without auxiliaries (use: don’t, doesn’t, didn’t)

They play football on Sundays, don’t they?

She plays football on Sundays, doesn’t she?

They played football on Sundays, didn’t they?

Special question

Open the window, will you?

Let’s take the next bus, shall we?

 

Source:

http://ielts-yasi.englishlab.net/YES_NO_QUESTIONS.htm

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/qu_tags.htm

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Definition Of Information Questions

5W 1H Question :

Who

  • Identify the characters in the reading and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between the characters and describe to yourself the relationship between the characters.

What

  • Identify the events or actions and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between the events or actions to show the relationship between  them.
  • Draw connecting lines between the characters and the events as you describe to yourself the relationship between them.

Where

  • Identify all the places in the reading and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between places, events and characters as you describe to yourself the relationship among them.

When

  • Identify all the time factors in the reading and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between time factors, places, events and characters as you describe to yourself the relationship among them.

Why

  • Identify causes for events of actions and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines from the causes to effects on the characters, events, places, or times as you describe to yourself the relationship among them.

How

  • Identify the way events took place and make a list of them.
  • Draw connecting lines between the way events took place and other factors as you describe to yourself the relationship among them

Yes No Question :

Definition:  An interrogative construction that expects an answer of “yes” or “no.” Contrast with wh- question.

Examples and Observations:

                        Homer: Are you an angel?

                         Moe: Yes, Homer. All us angels wear Farrah slacks.

                        (The Simpsons)

“Directing a movie is a very overrated job, we all know it. You just have to say ‘yes’ or ‘no.’ What else do you do? Nothing. ‘Maestro, should this be red?’ Yes. ‘Green?’ No. ‘More extras?’ Yes. ‘More lipstick?’ No. Yes. No. Yes. No. That’s directing.” (Judi Dench as Liliane La Fleur in Nine, 2009).

            Principal McGee: Are you just going to stand there all day?

            Sonny: No ma’am. I mean, yes ma’am. I mean, no ma’am.

             Principal McGee: Well, which is it?

             Sonny: Um, no ma’am.

             (Eve Arden and Michael Tucci in Grease, 1978)

The yes-no question is found in three varieties: the inverted question, the typical exemplar of this kind; the inverted question offering an alternative (which may require more than a simple yes or no for an answer); and the tag question:

            Are you going? (inversion)

            Are you staying or going? (inversion with alternative)

            You’re going, aren’t you? (tag)

The inverted question merely inverts the subject and the first verb of the verb phrase of the corresponding statement pattern when that verb is either a modal or an auxiliary verb or the verb be and sometimes have. The question itself may be positive or negative:

She is leaving on Wednesday.

            Is she leaving on Wednesday?

    . . . A positive question appears to be neutral as to the expected response–yes or no. However, a negative question seems to hold out the distinct possibility of a negative response.

            Are you going? Yes/No.

            Aren’t you going? No.

(Ronald Wardhaugh, Understanding English Grammar: A Linguistic Approach. Wiley-Blackwell, 2003)

“There are many different ways to format questions on a survey. Let’s say you want to measure people’s attitudes toward premarital sex. You could ask a simple yes-no question:

        Are you in favor of premarital sex?

        ___ Yes ___ No

Or you could use a Likert-type scale where the question is phrased as a statement.” (Annabel Ness Evans and Bryan J. Rooney, Methods in Psychological Research, 2nd ed. Sage, 2011) Also Known As: polar interrogative, polar question, bipolar question

Tag Question :

Question tags are the short questions that we put on the end of sentences – particularly in spoken English. There are lots of different question tags but the rules are not difficult to learn.

Positive/negative

If the main part of the sentence is positive, the question tag is negative ….

  • He’s a doctor, isn’t he?
  • You work in a bank, don’t you?

… and if the main part of the sentence is negative, the question tag is positive.

  • You haven’t met him, have you?
  • She isn’t coming, is she?

With auxiliary verbs

The question tag uses the same verb as the main part of the sentence. If this is an auxiliary verb (‘have’, ‘be’) then the question tag is made with the auxiliary verb.

  • They’ve gone away for a few days, haven’t they?
  • They weren’t here, were they?
  • He had met him before, hadn’t he?
  • This isn’t working, is it?

Without auxiliary verbs

If the main part of the sentence doesn’t have an auxiliary verb, the question tag uses an appropriate form of ‘do’.

  • I said that, didn’t I?
  • You don’t recognise me, do you?
  • She eats meat, doesn’t she?

With modal verbs

If there is a modal verb in the main part of the sentence the question tag uses the same modal verb.

  • They couldn’t hear me, could they?
  • You won’t tell anyone, will you?

With ‘I am’

Be careful with question tags with sentences that start ‘I am’. The question tag for ‘I am’ is ‘aren’t I?’

  • I’m the fastest, aren’t I?

Intonation

Question tags can either be ‘real’ questions where you want to know the answer or simply asking for agreement when we already know the answer.

If the question tag is a real question we use rising intonation. Our tone of voice rises.
If we already know the answer we use falling intonation. Our tone of voice falls.

Source :

http://designjournalsos.blogspot.com/2012/01/amusement-theme-starter-ultimate-how-to.html

http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-questions-tag.htm

 

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